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November 2012

E-Bulletin from IATEFL Poland keeping you informed


Peter Whiley

Welcome to another edition – a Post-Conference one – of the E-Bulletin. You are all doubtless ‘back in the swing of things’, following the Conference at Wrocław, and maybe trying out some ideas in the classroom that you picked up during it. Have you reverted back to the usage of drills? Or have you explored the possibilities of translation exercises? I wouldn’t be surprised as the old methods enjoyed a resurgence at the Conference. Personally speaking, whenever I have used drills, they have gone down well in the classroom, and yet I resist using them for some reason. Do you feel the same? If you do, don’t tell Jeremy Harmer!

So, what’s in this edition? Well, I have some interesting facts and figures for you regarding key feedback from the Conference – that’s always important! Then, for something personal, I am including the Wrocław Diary written by Nick Michelioudakis, our presenter-friend from Greece, who made his first trip to Poland. What were his impressions of ‘our fair country?’ It’s no surprise that Nick was enchanted by Polish women, but he loved many other aspects, too. I also have a good teaching website recommendation for you, from a friend of mine, Tim Harrell. Finally, I will include an interesting article from one of the many transcripts sent to me, and supply you with up-to-date IATEFL news. Let’s not forget the British Council section, either, as more top-quality articles can be of good use to you in your work.


Attendance: More than 700 participants...

Post-Conference: We have 319 new members of IATEFL Poland. Wow!

AGM: Record attendance! More than 200 members present.

Most Interesting Polish Presenter: Once again, the winner was Grzegorz Śpiewak. He polled 23% of the vote... 7% more than the runner-up, Professor Jan Miodek.

Most Interesting Foreign presenter: Yet again, Michael Swan! He was 13% ahead of the runner-up, Hugh Dellar.

Strange fact: Nearly 100 more participants voted in the ‘Most Interesting Foreign Speaker’ poll than in the ‘Most Interesting Polish Speaker’ poll. That happens every year, it seems. Why? You tell me.

How did you learn about the Conference? 55% answered that they were on the IATEFL Poland mailing list. 15% found out via a friend.

Conference Venue: 177 out of 207 people stated that the venue was either good or very good.

Conference Packs: 74% of the total poll felt they were good or very good.

Meals: 60% completed the ‘good’ or ‘very good’ categories.

Evening Entertainment: 69% went with the ’good’ or ‘very good’ categories.

Registration: 64% of you said it was ‘very easy’. Another 24% stated that it was ‘good’. That’s a pleasing result for IATEFL, especially the Conference organisers!

Using the Conference programme: 89% of you polled in the ‘good’ or ‘very good’ categories – again, very pleasing for the organisers.

Using the Conference Website: 82% polled in the above two categories and only two people found it difficult.

Finding Your Way Around: 18% found this difficult, whilst 57% found it ‘good’ or ‘very easy’. So, Conference signage needs to be improved.

Access to the Exhibition Stands: Nobody found this difficult! Wow! 61% found it ‘very easy’. That should be pleasing for the publishers. It’s also an issue taken very seriously by IATEFL Poland.

International Participation: We had participants from 17 countries taking part in the Conference, including Algeria and Japan. Perhaps this was the most international Conference we have ever held!


Nick Michelioudakis

Nick Michelioudakis (B. Econ., Dip. RSA, MSc [TEFL]) is an Academic Consultant with EDEXCEL. He has also worked in the field of ELT as a teacher, examiner and trainer. He has written more than 50 articles and is a regular presenter at TESOL and PEKADE events. He likes to think of himself as a ‘front-line teacher’ and is particularly interested in one-to-one teaching and student motivation. He also has a keen interest in Social and Evolutionary Psychology. When he is not struggling with students, he likes to spend his time in a swimming pool or playing chess. For any questions, comments or feedback, you can contact him at nickmi@ath.forthnet.gr. To see more of his published articles, you can visit his site at www.michelioudakis.org.

Wrocław Diary

Nick Michelioudakis

The purpose of this short piece is two-fold: a) to express my gratitude to all the colleagues from IATEFL Poland for inviting me to this amazing event and b) to make those people who did not manage to come even more envious! :) According to the well-known cliché, ‘a picture is worth a thousand words’ – so you should be thankful really...

Wrocław Diary 1

Wonderful Wroclaw
Stunning squares, beautiful parks, wide roads, excellent restaurants, delicious food, well-chilled beer, friendly people... and of course, the river... Paradise!! (Actually I’ve checked it – Wroclaw is the second synonym given after ‘Heaven’!) As for Rynek (the heart of the city) it’s absolutely the most beautiful place I have ever been to!! But you don’t need to take my word for it – just look at this picture!

Wrocław Diary 2

An amazing experience
The Conference itself was simply fantastic! The venue was spacious, everything had been carefully planned, assistants were always on hand – in short, the organization was flawless! Polish food was a revelation to me! This picture was taken at the Associates dinner where I must have put on at least a kilo... I have arranged with ‘Weightwatchers’ to forward my bill to IATEFL Poland...

Wrocław Diary 3

The talks 1
What can one say about the talks? With so many brilliant speakers on the bill, one was spoilt for choice! I had never heard Michael Swan before and he confirmed what most of us realise instinctively; the greater you are, the more straightforward your message. Directness (and humour) aside, some of the bees he talked about have found their way into MY bonnet... (how does one get rid of them??)

Wrocław Diary 4

The talks 2
I also loved Carole Reed’s creative way of using a fairy tale to get some very interesting points across… It is amazing how potent stories are in making certain things memorable... (according to Evolutionary Psychologists we are pre-wired to be drawn to stories of all kinds) As an added bonus, I now know why I look the way I do... I used to be a Prince before that silly Princess kissed me...

Wrocław Diary 5

The talks 3
And then of course there was Jeremy Harmer whom I have been fortunate enough to see 3-4 times... I remember once I tripped over an old lamp, rubbed it and lo and behold out came a genie! ‘I’ll give you one wish and one wish only!’ he said. ‘I would like to be like Jeremy Harmer when I grow up!’ I exclaimed. He looked concerned... ‘tell you what’ he said ‘I’ll give you another two...’

Wrocław Diary 6

The boat trip
The icing to a wonderful cake was the river trip… Humans have always been attracted to large bodies of water (which is why they feature so prominently in landscapes) but not many rivers can compete with the river Oder... To say that we were awed would be an understatement. The beauty of this bridge reflected on the water is not something one can easily forget...

Wrocław Diary 7

‘Say no more squire...’
...Now this may come as a surprise to some, but the first question of my male friends back in Greece was not ‘What were the talks like?’ So I referred them to the introduction of my main talk: Slide 1: ‘In 1968 the Beatles released the single “Back in the USSR”...’ Slide 2: ‘...in it, they wax lyrical about the beauty of Russian, Ukranian and Georgian girls...’ Slide 3: ‘...that’s because they never came to Poland!!’ :)

Here's a recent transcript from our archives - all about the use of music with actions....and obviously suitable for Young Learners. Read on....and you will see a clear method emerging. An interesting and useful approach for teaching YLs with fun in the classroom.

Peter Whiley

Charles Goodger is a language expert at Bologna University. Text book author and teacher trainer (Pilgrims, UK), he is also a musician and founded his own Windsor-based ELT organization FunSongs Education in 2001. The FunSongs Method of teaching English is officially approved and recommended by the Italian, Latvian and Lithuanian Ministries of Education. Downloads, including a free sample action song module for registrants, are available at www.funsongs.co.uk including Goodger's own PDF book: "Music and Mime, Rhythm and Rhyme."

FunSongs - Learning through Rhythm and Rhyme, Music and Mime

Charles Goodger

Almost all learners enjoy singing and dancing. So when fresh new earworm tunes and rhythms come together in specially worded songs that are fun to dance, mime and perform, teachers and student have a powerful tool - a tool that used correctly can effectively accelerate the language learning process.

Provided it possesses certain key properties, a language-learning action song is a great way of jump-starting a new teaching module. Once learnt, the song's contents can then be broken up, recycled, practised and acquired through a graded set of games, tasks and activities.

Combine the emotive and mnemonic power of melody and rhythm with TPR (Total Physical Response) in presentative language-learning action songs and you can be sure your learners will experience what is called PMA (Permanent Memory Acquisition). And what could be more worthwhile and reassuring to the committed English teacher than knowing her class has already learnt the target language of the current module before starting to recycle it?

During the action song teaching and learning phase try to limit the use of L1 as much as possible. Even if learners don't pick up on the complete meaning of each word right away, it doesn't matter. At this stage they just need to get the gist of the sense as they start to form meaningful associations between the actions and the sound of the language chunks. Neurologically, the combination of music, rhythm, rhyme, language and movement (in a dynamic, collective activity with a clearly defined goal) is bringing several intelligences "online" at the same time and your learners will be using both sides of their brains. James J. Asher calls this "brainswitching".

As soon as your class has learnt the song using the guide voice, get them to stand and perform the song with the kids' version mp3. In this way the adult voice is removed and your class acquires the song for itself - it becomes their song. Look out for opportunities for your class to perform the song - ideally to their parents or to another class to which you intend to teach the song. Performing an action song well will give your kids an important psychological boost - reinforcing confidence in themselves and in their ability to handle the foreign language.

Teachers and parents are often surprised at how fast a class can learn an English song in this way. However remember you have only completed the first stage of the action song teaching module. Yet you have have a precious resource - the words and themes of the action song - have been committed to the long-term memories of your learners. You now need to break down the song and encourage the children to recycle and work its vocabulary and language in a variety of different contexts. This is why you should have a set of activities and worksheets available as you move ahead to complete the action song module.


  • Howard Gardner - Frames of Mind, Multiple Intelligences Basic Books
  • James J. Asher - Learning another language through actions Sky Oak Productions

Here, as promised, is news of a great new website - very useful for all those teachers who love using video clips in class - and many thanks go to my friend, Tim Harrell, for the recommendation, and detailed instructions on usage here.

Peter Whiley

'Flipped Teaching': a unique website recommendation

Tim Harrell

Here is a set of curated video lessons suitable for teaching purposes which are designed by TED-nominated educators working in collaboration with professional animators.


What's great about this site is that teachers can not only use the lessons as is, but can also customise them by framing the videos (selecting the specific parts to use), selecting from multiple choice quizzes, adding their own open-ended questions, and even adding supplementary information to the video lessons such as links to other articles or further reading.


To customise a lesson you select the 'Flip' option and then you can alter it. After doing so TED Ed will give you a unique link which you can send to students. Students can enter their answers as they take the quiz and the teacher can log in and see who has viewed the lesson and what answers were given (including a score for multiple choice questions).

You can also share the links to lessons (your own 'flipped' versions or others) via the usual social networking mechanisms such as Twitter.

The word 'flip' is used because videos like these support the concept of Flipped Teaching, as popularised by Salman Khan et al, where students can also learn outside class. In this way, valuable class time can be used more productively by the teacher to give personalised attention and individual feedback according to students' performances.

Another great feature is that you can not only flip the TED Ed videos but you can actually flip any YouTube video, to create your own personalised content but with the same interface as the TED Ed videos (quizzes, open-ended questions, etc) and you can share/track this lesson as above. I think this provides a means of making some of the teaching materials we use look more professional and consistent, with the bonus of student tracking built in :)

Here's an example of a TED Ed lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/jessica-wise-how-fiction-can-change-reality

I hope you find this useful.

IATEFL Poland Up-date


Conference Venue

After heralding the success of Wrocław's Conference this year, you may all be thinking about next year's Conference! Where will it be held? At this moment in time, no answer is definite...but it seems likely that Łódź could be the host city. However, we have two bidders from that city, so the Executive Cttee. is weighing up the pros and cons of each proposed venue. Keep an eye on the main website for further news - coming soon to your computer! Will there be any boat rides as evening entertainment in the 'city of the boat'? Probably not, but with Manufaktura nearby, anything is possible! Hopefully, we'll bring a Swan (Michael), as the best speaker at our Conferences is automatically invited back the next year.

Strengthening International Ties

A forthcoming meeting in Turkey in December (how warm will the weather be?) will be attended by Marta Bujakowska, our International Liaison Officer, along with similar personnel from other link organisations. They will be looking at ways and means of strengthening international links and working more closely together in the future. This could very well open up opportunities for you! As you may have noticed on the main website, we will be looking for reps. at future Conferences abroad. This also involves a willingness to give presentations. Certainly, we hope to be more actively involved and take a leading role in the Central and Eastern European spheres. However, we also have strong links with western-based organisations, such as TESOL France, TESOL Spain, and IATEFL UK, to name three, and visits there are possible, too. Contact Marta Bujakowska, if you are interested in being an IATEFL Poland Conference Rep. See the main website for further details.

Conference Transcripts

Many thanks to all those speakers who sent me transcripts of their talks/workshops at the Wrocław Conference. The lucky ones will have their articles published in the next Post-Conference Newsletter. Others may be published in future e-bulletins, too. I was so hectically busy, I had no chance to personally thank people individually, so please accept my heartfelt gratitude here.


In case you were wondering, I was not present at the Wrocław Conference. My wife gave birth to a baby daughter at the time the Conference got underway on the Friday, so our babe, Emilia, could be truly described as an IATEFL babe! Hopefully, one day in the future, she will be Newsletter Editor! Thanks to all those who sent their best wishes/congratulations...

Peter Whiley
(IATEFL Poland Newsletter Editor)

British Council Section

British Council

Welcome to yet another BC Section, and one that presents two thought-provoking articles. The first, by Michael Swan, just voted 'Best Foreign Speaker' once again by IATEFL Poland Conference delegates, is not based on grammar, but focuses on texts, and asks the pertinent question: 'what are they used for?' Michael points out how they should not be used, as well as suggesting what is their inherent value. The second article is geared at Business English teachers dealing with Beginners....not an easy task by any means. P. Ilangovan, an ELT Consultant based in India, shows two lesson plans outlining how to present vocabulary to such learners - the right and wrong way to do it. I am sure you will find both articles useful....do read on.

Peter Whiley

Using texts constructively: what are texts for?

Michael Swan

Text use may seem a dull topic after all the exciting matters that other guest writers have dealt with recently. However, language learning is, after all, learning language, not just doing fun things with it. And texts – by which I mean the relatively short spoken and written passages that come in textbooks and other teaching materials – can, if they are used properly, play an important part in the learning process. So here goes.

Three kinds of input

Let's start by looking at the overall structure of language learning. It is useful to identify three kinds of useful input: extensive, intensive and analysed. Children learning their mother tongues receive massive extensive input from the cloud of language that surrounds them, some of it roughly attuned to their level of development, much of it not. They also receive substantial intensive input – small samples of language such as nursery rhymes, stories, songs, the daily mealtime and bedtime scripts, and so on, which are repeated, assimilated, memorised, probably unconsciously analysed, and/or used as templates for future production. And children receive analysed input: explicit information about language. Although they are not generally told very much about grammar and pronunciation, they constantly demand explanations of vocabulary: ‘What’s a ...?’; ‘What’s that?’; ‘What does ... mean?’

Second-language learners are no different in principle from small children in these respects. They, too, need extensive input – exposure to quantities of spoken and written language, authentic or not too tidied up, for their unconscious acquisition processes to work on. (For evidence for the effectiveness of extensive reading, see for example Day and Bamford 1998, or Alan Maley's survey of the research in his December 2009 guest article.) Equally, learners need intensive engagement with small samples of language which they can internalise, process, make their own and use as bases for their own production (Cook 2000). And since most instructed second-language learners have only a fraction of the input that is available to child first-language learners, the deliberate teaching of grammatical as well as lexical regularities – analysed input – helps to compensate for the inadequacy of naturalistic exposure for at least some aspects of language.

Three kinds of output

Input is only half the story. People generally seem to learn best what they use most. Children produce quantities of extensive output, chattering away as they activate what they have taken in. They also recycle the intensive input they have received, repeating their stories, nursery rhymes and so on, and speaking their lines in the recurrent daily scripts of childhood life. And some children, at least, seem to produce certain kinds of analysed output, naming things or rehearsing and trying out variations on structures that they have been exposed to, like more formal language learners doing ‘pattern practice’ (Weir 1970).

Adults, too, need opportunities to produce all three kinds of output. They must have the chance to engage in extensive, ‘free’ speech and writing; they must be able to systematically recycle the intensive input that they have more or less internalised (and thus complete the process of internalisation); and they need to practise the analysed patterns and language items that have been presented to them, so that they have some chance of carrying them over into spontaneous fluent production.

A properly-balanced language-teaching programme, then, will have these three ingredients – extensive, intensive and analysed – at both input and output stages. While all the ingredients are important, the proportions in a given teaching programme will naturally vary according to the learners' needs, their level, and the availability of each element both in and out of class.

What can texts do?

So where do textbook texts – relatively short continuous pieces of spoken or written language – come into all this? Clearly they can contribute in various ways to the three-part process outlined above. They can provide material for practice in receptive skills, and thus facilitate access to extensive input. They can act as springboards for discussion, role play, or other kinds of extensive output work. They can support analysed input by contextualising new language items. A further role – and a very important one – is to provide the intensive input that all learners need: short samples of appropriately selected language which are carefully attended to and partly internalised, and which can then serve as a basis for controlled production.

What do texts usually do?

Unfortunately, this aspect of text use is often neglected or ineffectively put into practice. A language-teaching text may simply be seen as something to be ‘gone through’ in one way or another, without any clear definition of the outcomes envisaged. (Text-work is an awfully convenient way of filling up a language lesson, and teachers often feel that any text-based activity is bound to be beneficial. This is not necessarily the case.) One approach to ‘going through’ is the traditional pseudo-intensive lesson where the teacher uses a text as the basis for a kind of free-association fireworks display. He or she comments on one word, expression or structure after another, elicits synonyms and antonyms, pursues ideas sparked off by the text, perhaps gets the students to read aloud or translate bits, and so on and so on. Meanwhile the students write down hundreds of pieces of information in those overfilled notebooks that someone once memorably called ‘word cemeteries’. When the end of the 'lesson' is approaching, students may answer some so-called ‘comprehension questions’. (As Mario Rinvolucri asked in his November 2008 guest article, what exactly are these for? If you have spent an hour working on a text with your class and still need to find out whether they understand it, perhaps there's something wrong.). Students then go away to write a homework on a topic distantly related (or even not at all related) to that of the text. This kind of activity tends to fall between two stools: the text is too short to contribute much to learners' extensive experience of language, but the work done on it is not really intensive either. At the end of the cycle the students have been given much too much input, have engaged with it too superficially to assimilate much of it, and have used (and therefore consolidated) little or none of it. They have been taught – inefficiently – one lot of language, and then asked to produce a substantially different lot.

Another approach which has been fashionable in recent decades is to use a written text to teach 'reading skills'. The text is typically accompanied by a battery of exercises which require students to predict, skim, scan, identify main ideas, match topics to paragraphs, sort out shuffled texts, and so on. There is an implicit assumption that even perfectly competent mother-tongue readers actually need to learn to process text all over again in a new language. For a critique of this view, see Walter and Swan 2008. Here again, students may spend substantial time working through a text without any very identifiable payoff in terms of increased language knowledge or genuine skills development.

While texts can undoubtedly be valuable in various ways, I believe they are best used with a clear purpose in mind, and a reasonable certainty that they will help to achieve this purpose. In a second article I will focus on the intensive input-output cycle referred to above, which I believe is centrally important, and I will consider ways in which texts can be exploited efficiently to support this aspect of language learning.


  • Cook, G. 2000. Language Play, Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Day, R. & Bamford, J. 1998. Extensive Reading in the Second Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Walter, C. & Swan, M. 2008. 'Teaching reading skills: mostly a waste of time?' in IATEFL 2008: Exeter Conference Selections.
  • Weir, R. H. 1970. Language in the Crib. The Hague: Mouton.

Presenting business vocabulary to beginners

P. Ilangovan

Pre-selecting, grading and presenting business vocabulary - Is this the way forward? Traditionally curriculum developers and materials writers have assumed it would be worthwhile to make a selection out of a set of to-be-learned vocabulary items that they would then grade (which in effect means that some words would come before other words) before presenting them. Others going by the time-honoured method of PPP (present-practice-produce) would first present the items of vocabulary that are then practised by the learners in controlled activities which would then be finally followed by freer practice, leading to production of the practised items by the learner in question.

It would however be beneficial to us at this point to find out if that is indeed the way in which second language learners acquire vocabulary items as a matter of course. Let us assume that a group of beginners has been presented with a vocabulary item, "voucher." Here is how the lesson proceeds next:

  • Pronounce and spell target on board
  • Class reads a memo instructing employees to submit expense vouchers (transportation, medical and other expenses) to accounts department and obtain plastic tokens in return
  • Exchange plastic tokens for cash on payday
  • Class takes a reading quiz and chooses the meaning of the target from among other options

The lesson: the controlled activity phase

Learners in pairs take part in a role-play between an accountant and an employee. Their cue cards present language models - useful words and phrases - to make use of while playing their roles.

A sample role-play

Accountant [A]: Can I help you?
Employee [EMP]: Yes, I'd like to know if the money that I spent the day before yesterday on travelling from London to Cambridge and back again yesterday can be refunded. I took the National Express coach and it cost me £80.00 return. And, can I also be refunded what I spent on my meals and accommodation these past two days?
A: Well, you know the procedure. You'd just have to hand me your vouchers and the accompanying photocopies of your tickets, restaurant and hotel bills now and you'll be refunded by the fifth of next month!
EMP: I'm new in here and I was wondering if the accounts department would be able to keep track of all the vouchers that employees keep handing in!
A: It's actually quite simple - you see, when you give me your vouchers I would immediately give you back a few plastic tokens that are colour coded according to the value of the voucher you handed in and you would just have to keep collecting all the tokens you obtain from us until payday and then hand them over to us for the refund.
EMP: Oh, I see. Thanks very much for explaining it to me.
A: You are welcome! There's nothing to it really.

The lesson: the freer activity phase

This time around the teacher sets them a task with the following requirements:

  • Learners cooperatively plan their day-to-day expenses for their trip to Berlin to display their company's products, and calculate expenses redeemable by vouchers and by other means
  • Each meal, journey, accommodation and unforeseen expenses are to be planned for in advance on a shoe-string budget

Observers watching the learners grapple with the task would immediately perceive the shortcomings of this method and realise that the learner at this level is not able to choose from among the competing key words (vouchers, luncheon vouchers, gift vouchers, bills, receipts, etc) with a view to producing the item appropriately while doing the task.

Is there a more effective way of presenting vocabulary to the learner?

A straightforward way of presenting business vocabulary is to get the learner to listen to an oral presentation or conversation in which the target item (e.g., "brochure") is embedded. The teacher gets the class to come to terms with the topic of the conversation / presentation: how much of it do they know already? During the pre-listening discussion if the teacher realises that the class knows very little about it, then she can raise it to their consciousness and then proceed to play the CD / tape recording.

After the first listening, the teacher can talk to the class to find out what it now knows about the topic / key facts. Let's now manipulate a listening text in order to get the learner to focus on the target and to get them to produce it appropriately.

An extract from the transcript of a discussion between a manager and her assistant

Sarah [Sa]: There're several things ... need to talk about.
Frank [Fr]: Yes, but in ...we can't it wouldn't really matter.
Sa: ... cost of phone calls... worries....
Fr: ...e-mail ... seem... cheaper
Fr: You want to... limit ... expenses...?
Sa: ...let's move... training
Sa: ... agree. OK, ...next?
Fr: Um, there's ... printing ... new brochure.
Sa: ...basic information changing?
Fr: Not... but ... really needs to look different. The current ... doesn't give the right idea at all...
Sa: Yes, ... bit old-fashioned, and it just doesn't have the right image for the company...

This lesson's plan:

  • Get class to listen for the gist and for specific word to be highlighted in some way
  • Talk with class to enable learners to recall target and produce it appropriately

The lesson might unfold thus:

T: So, what ... main idea ... passage?
SS: to discuss several things
T: Yes, the first key idea is...?
SS: cost of phone calls
T: what ... solution?
SS: using e-mail ...
T: correct. The next topic...?
SS: limiting expenses
T: the next topic?
SS: training
T: and the final topic was?
SS: brochure
T: Which of these topics is vital to the image of the company?
SS: A brochure relates to the image
T: Correct

The above exchange shows us that the target that was embedded in the text was listened to, recalled and produced appropriately by the learner.


I started off this article by presenting and discussing a typical vocabulary lesson using the PPP method and pointed out that learners hardly seem to be able to recall and make productive use of the target word when the situation demanded it. I next presented an alternative approach to presenting vocabulary to beginners and discussed the possibility of getting learners to listen first for the gist of a spoken text with the target embedded in it and then getting them to listen for the specific item which they are led to focus on as a result of the teacher's questions. A natural offshoot of this technique is that when next the teacher gets the class to relate the vocabulary item with the topic or key fact with which it is associated, the learner would be ready to do so -- having already grasped the gist / key facts of the passage.

All articles, news items, queries, etc. send to: newsletter@iatefl.org.pl
E-Bulletin Editor: Peter Whiley